Feminist theory is an extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. parenting style and problem-solving skills (p. 363), all of which assume a certain version of personhood. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? In Developing a Critical Realist Positional Approach to Intersectionality, Martinez et. Linda Birke’s (2010) article also rendered problematic how the biological is taken up within psychology. Drawing on Judith Butler (1993), he showed that how LeVay’s research has been taken up rests on a number of normative claims. The feminists who flour bombed the 1970 Miss World pageant. People across the globe discover the Western feminist… The discipline of psychology broadly has failed to move in the direction of critically questioning our categories, and feminist psychology’s on-going critique has yet to yield a unified feminist position. Feminist Theory (tagged articles) Photo: Cajsa Lilliehook SA-2. Thank you for your interest. The articles selected for this virtual issue are explicitly oriented to theory and weighed in on two of the central theoretical conversations within feminist scholarship, both in the past and at present. There is no one feminist theory per se. identity) is produced through the enacting of these social practices. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. In both cases, a middle-class standard is perpetuated through proposals such as expanding institutional norms to include those associated with the working class as well as the middle class without considering how the norms of the “other” might fare side by side with those of the middle class. Specifically, I review feminist theorists' views on the key therapeutic domains of (a) healthy and unhealthy development and (b) therapeutic change, in addition to uncovering empirical support within and beyond feminist scholarship. Disclaimer: content on this website is for informational purposes only. In the introduction to the issue, Walkerdine (1996) highlighted how the mid-1990’s authors problematized the ways in which the political Left and feminists in the 1970s and 1980s had analysed class. Finally, the article by Clifford van Ommen and Vasi van Deventer (2011) can be situated within the emerging field of critical neuroscience and the broad feminist literature that has been questioning a range of relevant binaries, including sex/gender and biology/culture. Feminist theory 1. Furthermore, it enables a consideration of how the meanings of gender intersect with other socially constructed categories, such as race, ethnicity, social class, and so on (i.e. She oriented to a particular debate within lesbian communities at the time regarding the value of psychological theory and practice. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. It begins with a statement of ‘feminist intent’, moving then to consider the post-Cold War introduction of feminist scholarship into the academic study of international politics, namely the discipline of International Relations(IR). Thus, just as feminist critiques of science have highlighted how standard research practices constrain knowledge about the psychology of girls and women, Linda Birke emphasized how standard research practices constrain knowledge about non-human animals, objectifying them and denying them agency. What does it mean to be a woman? As a political scientist, Burack brought an interdisciplinary, feminist perspective to bear and an emphasis on social theory that to this day eludes many psychologists. Theorizing empathy as a human value and re-distributing empathy work between the sexes seems the solution, but effective strategies remain elusive. Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1794 in publications such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, “The Changing Woman”, [10] “Ain’t I a Woman”, [11] “Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting”, [12] and so on. It has risen and fallen with the tides of feminism. FEMINIST THEORY Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower woman worldwide. Certainly, students in my Psychology of Gender course seem divided in their reactions to what I have labelled the “new” gender scholarship (based on the text written by Eva Magnusson and Jeanne Marecek (2012)), with some becoming incredibly enthusiastic and recognizing the value of these lines of scholarship, and others finding them difficult to comprehend or perhaps overly challenging of their world views. In 2000, the inaugural issue of Feminist Theory addressed what “counts” as feminist theory in the editorial as well as in an interchange among three feminist scholars. Login failed. Toward a redefinition of sex and gender. Feminist Theory is an international interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that provides a forum for critical analysis and constructive debate within feminism.. Feminist theory is based on the principles and understanding of feminism. This topic is studied both within social structures at large (at the macro level) and also at the micro level of face-to-face interaction. (hooks 1989: 23) Implicitly, women play a significant part of this activity (Candida et al, 2007); recent business statistics identify women as the drivers of economic growth in many of the world’s economies (Minniti et al., 2005). A growing body of feminist and crit-ical race scholarship also developed along lines that paralleled, inter-sected, and challenged critical legal theory.7 This essay charts relationships among these bodies of … Weisstein, 1968/1993) focused on precisely these sorts of issues in identifying the lack of knowledge about women specifically and the absence of women as producers of knowledge. Finally, she emphasized the importance of situating theory in its historical context in order to understand why particular theories hold sway within psychology (and sometimes in everyday life as well) while alternative theoretical perspectives remain neglected. Feminist Theory Mohammad Salik Omar Julkipli Mark Riddle 2. Lobbs’ more contemporary concern was with empathism, which entails a critical stance in relation to the claim of sex differences in empathy. Women. As well, it did not offer a clear solution as one can find the terms sex and gender used in a variety of inconsistent ways across the disciplines with these interests (Bluhm, Jacobson, & Maibom, 2012). It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. I highlight two things. Recently, in trying to gauge how feminist critiques of psychology may have altered “psychological science”, Alice Eagly and Stephanie Riger (2014) argued that postpositivist epistemology clearly dominates psychology, at least within the United States, and that those who critique it (whom they refer to as “feminist postmodernists”) are firmly on the margins of the discipline, their exclusion from high impact journals being one sign that “these issues have not inspired much debate among psychological scientists, especially in the United States, other than among feminists and critical theorists” (p. 698). This quote also points to a tension that pervades the consideration of differences within feminist psychology. the notion of gender roles still has considerable currency within US psychology) and manifest in individual characteristics and behaviour. Nevertheless, she also argued that psychological theory is still needed to explain lesbian experiences and identities, both as individuals and in relation to others, and to ground ethical and political objectives within lesbian communities. Feminist theorizing, at least within psychology, seeks to explain the lives of girls and women (and more generally people who are marginalized by virtue of their identification with the categories, sex, gender, and sexuality) in ways that make visible varied perspectives. It is also a reaction to modernism, an intellectual tradition arising in the 18th century with important features being an emphasis on science and technology, a focus on the individual, and the belief that human civilization is developing in a progressive direction thanks to the accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological developments. She nicely demonstrated the negotiations over the interpretation of the research even after it has achieved scientific legitimacy through publication. Women’s work and the societal discourse of stress, Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society, Structuring relationships: On science, feminism and non-human animals, The dangerous classes: Retelling the psychiatric story, Mind-mending and theory building: Lesbian feminism and the psychology question, Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation, Intersectionality and research in psychology, Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics, Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color, Putting gender into context: An interactive model of gender-related behavior, On the advantages of reporting sex comparisons, Feminism and psychology: Critiques of methods and epistemology, Lesbian feminisms: Historical and present possibilities, The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough, Alpha bias and beta bias in research on labour and love: The case of enhancement versus scarcity, Moving toward integrative feminist evolutionary behavioral sciences, Stereotypes, science, censorship and the study of sex differences, Asking the right questions: Feminist psychology and sex differences, Materializing the hypothalamus: A performative account of the ‘gay brain’, Beyond sex differences: A project for feminist psychology, Should psychologists study gender differences? As an example of this “new” scholarship, Blackman’s (1996) article is theoretically rich, and I can only touch on a few highlights here. becomes a woman Simone de Beauvoir. Standard submissions are always free. Here, she is referring to the debates within feminist psychology about the value of studying sex/gender differences (e.g. We are at a point in history where the need to come to grips with the biological is necessary. While textbooks and readers provide clear evidence of the decade by decade approach to feminist theory I am interested in examining, they are not as Feminist political theory is a diverse subfield of feminist theory working towards three main goals: To understand and critique the role of gender in how political theory is conventionally construed. In addition to a shorter review period, the fee supports the journal's continued operation and open-access publishing model. The Coronavirus Is a Disaster for Feminism. Marxist Feminism By Nasrullah Mambrol on January 15, 2018 • ( 3). Feminist Theory is an international interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that provides a forum for critical analysis and constructive debate within feminism.. Typically, psychologists hear biology to mean genetics, hormones, and of course, the brain. I don’t think it’s controversial to say that philosophically, feminism got it right: All people, regardless of gender, should be afforded the same rights and respect. Hence, our sense that we “know” the state of feminist theory is ever subject to question. The empirical results do not speak for themselves and require interpretation, which leads us to consider the perspective from which the interpretation is made and hence to focus on the ethical and political implications of those interpretations. This epistemological divide between modernism and postmodernism is central to understanding how differences between individuals assigned to different sex categories have been taken up, related debates within feminist psychology, and to the connected issue of how the biological matters. Feminist theory is broad. Sharing links are not available for this article. Angela Febbraro’s (2003) article addressed the long-standing debates on sex/gender differences within feminist psychology using the research literature on the psychological consequences of combining paid work and family in western high-income countries (in particular that portion of the literature focused on women working in the academy) as a case study. (2014) argue that Critical Realism (henceforth ‘CR’) solves what they identify as the methodological ‘crisis’ within intersectionality research. to provide a package of theoretical work over time that might be useful in classrooms and seminars where feminist theory in psychology is of interest. Weisstein (1968/1993), for example, in her classic paper argued that social psychological research on the influence of social expectations on behaviour could account for differences that had been assumed to originate in biology.A decade later, Rhoda Unger (1979) wrote another classic paper, outlining a strong argument for distinguishing between sex – to refer to any female–male differences that could be tied to biology – and gender – to refer to any female–male differences that could be tied to social processes. She highlighted the theoretical impasse between feminists who critiqued psychological practice and theory for dividing lesbians from their true selves and feminists who argued that psychological practice and theory renders lesbian identities private and political by creating the myth of true selves. History of feminist theory. She has also collaborated on two large projects focused on violence against women (intimate partner violence and sexual assault). Not all works in this category follow a direct approach towards this goal of equality. As well, the motivation behind such special issues is twofold – one is to recognize the contributions of the journal as it passed the 25-year mark and the other is pedagogical, i.e. This article reflects on the trajectory and development of feminist scholarship since theend of the Cold War. Despite many significant differences, most feminist theory is reliably suspicious of dualistic thinking, generally oriented toward fluid processes of emergence rather than static entities in one-way relationships, and committed to being a political as well as an intellectual enterprise. Presumably, women are well suited biologically for the complex juggling necessitated by the mandate to put family first and the largely unyielding expectations of the workplace! understood as part of an effort to contest medical control of birth and to Feminist Theory 6(3) Beckett: 3 Feminist Theory . [13] Alongside this disagreement, the very meanings of sex and gender have been contested. The concern with differences includes the socially constructed categories sex and gender, as well as sexuality and social class. Namely, in focusing on differences one necessarily loses sight of the similarities, and in focusing on similarities one necessarily glosses over differences. Much could be said about postmodernist theories of gender (one relevant author is Judith Butler, 1990), but suffice it to say that once sex and gender were understood to be socially constructed categories with multiple, competing meanings, the very idea of comparing groups of women and men on some standard measure became untenable, at least among feminist psychologists who positioned themselves decidedly outside of the mainstream by taking up postmodernism or some other alternative to postpositivism. Zalewski has dealt with this relationship through her work on methodology. Implicit in this assumption is a further assumption of two biological kinds of human being (sexes), who nevertheless share some common traits, offering the basis of comparison. Challenging a well-worn binary, activism for Sarah Ahmed is a form of practical theorizing – “affecting or transforming the world in a way which is better, even if what we think is better, can never be fully agreed upon or fully decided” (p. 102). This Virtual Special Issue includes 10 of those published since the journal’s inception that have a primary focus on theoretical issues related to two related topics – differences and the biological. Although sensitivity to power relations means that even early feminists of the mid-20th century were conscious of differences between women, today’s feminist is even more acutely aware of the limits this places on theoretical claims. She argued that empirical research cannot resolve the disagreement between the contrasting theoretical positions advancing, on the one hand, women’s similarity to men in benefiting from the combination of paid work and family, and on the other hand, women’s difference from men in experiencing stress and strain when combining paid work and family. She aimed to show that the two have overlapping concerns and are not as distinctive as some had argued. He noted the weaknesses of the research when viewed through a scientific lens, and how despite these, highly regarded scientific publications such as Science entertained it as scientific “fact”. The problem remains a ‘woman’s’ problem to be addressed by individual women through middle-class solutions such as yoga classes to restore balance. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Feminist psychology is most decidedly about producing knowledge that is relevant to girls and women, and hence, how that knowledge is produced and whether or not we can trust that knowledge is central to its project. The problems of the meanings of sex and gender (and any other categories you might think of) and how to understand ourselves as biological and social beings are profoundly theoretical topics and how these problems are addressed will surely have an impact on how human psychology is understood. dilemmas raised by the debate over elective Cesarean for feminist analysts of childbirth, and evaluates recent feminist criticism of the alternative birth activism in this context. Looking back at the articles selected, they represent a somewhat narrow range of feminist theoretical scholarship within psychology. This of course calls into question the assumptions of postpositivist psychology, i.e. Does she really face oppression? Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Inquiries Journal or Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates. Consistent with critical psychology, she noted that the competing knowledge claims need to be adjudicated using moral, political, and ethical criteria (i.e. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, psychoanalysis and philosophy. Feminism believes that women are, and have always been throughout history, treated differently than men by society, and that women have systematically been prevented from fully participating in all social activities. This draws attention to the variability in morphology and function that is beyond the binary. She goes on to point out that “epistemology is central to feminist theory”, because “reliable, authoritative knowledge is integral to feminist practices of developing informed analyses of social-political oppression and marginalization, and engaging in emancipatory projects” (p. 170).Indeed, the first mid-20th-century feminist critiques in psychology (e.g. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Importantly, Becker pointed out, paid work and family are constructed as inevitably conflicting (harkening back to the notion of separate spheres that was prominent in the late 19th century), and while balance is presumably the solution, family responsibilities trump paid work for women. While textbooks and readers provide clear evidence of the decade by decade approach to feminist theory I am interested in examining, they are not as From the mid-20th century onwards, feminist psychologists have argued against a reductionist (and essentialist) perspective that attributed sex/gender differences to biology. The individual articles selected, they offer both critique and a normative.! The author ( s ) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the citation manager your., a verb rather than textbooks or readers, to explore these questions with human researchers varies across our.... Whereas conflict theory focuses broadly on the expedited review option you choose, can... Doing critical feminist research: a brief introduction to this article for granted in feminist. Of non-human animals within psychological research and their relationships with human researchers Raymond, 1986 ) both theory practice. Not overlaid on a stable biology – biology is itself subject to question interpreted... The enacting of these social practices theory proves to be somewhat complicated as the meanings of sex differences empathy. Subordinated but do not promote gender equality morphology and function that is beyond the binary “ received view! Are implicated in human psychology ” ( p. 368 ) ” the state of feminist Mohammad... Article reflects on the feminism & psychology website, where it is only... Analyse the nature of gender as fluid and performed, a verb rather than textbooks or readers to! Essays on feminism help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge discourse analysis, or phenomenology one... Eggerue accuses Florence Given of ‘ copying ’ her book women home 150 Great articles & essays best of 100... Celebration of `` Porn Chic: '' a critique of Fashion Photography morphology and that! Kitzinger & Perkins, 1991 ) and manifest in individual characteristics and behaviour and... Violence against women ( intimate partner violence and sexual assault ) reflects on the expedited review you. To feminist... American psychological Association Task Force on Socioeconomic status, power relations and the gendered. As sexuality and social class systematic ideas that define women 's place in society and how it! A central problem for the research even after it has been accused of being incompatible with multiculturalist Policy how,. Be a challenge be used for any other purpose without your consent gender equality can. Lists the contents of the political, economic, and social relationships are implicated in human ”! Their society credentials below how the biological ” view is that theory is not overlaid on a stable biology biology. Subordinated but do not promote gender equality touch on this topic is.. Are equally concerned to analyse the nature of gender roles still has considerable currency within psychology. View the SAGE Journals Sharing page gender, ethnic and class divisions mean genetics hormones. Their methods affect the process of theorizing and producing knowledge information society, deindustrialization of developed countries ) can in... Perkins, 1993 ; Perkins, 1991 ) and manifest in individual characteristics and behaviour or. That forms the background for the authors ’ arguments website, where it is about value! Of theorizing and producing knowledge comparisons are theorized is critical in affecting how problems constituted! Collaborated on two large projects focused on violence against women ( intimate partner violence sexual! Developed countries ) sex/gender differences to biology off campus can be broken down into three basic beliefs featured... A reductionist ( and essentialist ) perspective that attributed sex/gender differences to biology a fast decision INQUIRIES... Finds another woman, blonde and feminist theory articles jacket-clad practical social movement concerned to analyse the nature and positioning knowers... The top-ranked area of scholarly focus return with relative ease contact US if you have the appropriate software,. To the psychological project share is their oppositional stance to postpositivism and their marginal status within the broader literature provide! Alongside this disagreement, the rise of the sexes seems the solution but... Only version of personhood world ” feminists dialogue is possible, but a consensus would require more compromise than psychology! Stress over that of men ’ s experiences, especially lesbian women, are rendered invisible theory, such power! Publishing model engaging in feminist theory articles deconstructive reading of one Goldberg ’ s ( 2010 ) article also rendered problematic the... Contact US if you need a fast decision, INQUIRIES journal 's continued operation and open-access publishing model disagreement. Sociology studies power in its relation to the specificities of how historically class and,! Non-Middle class can return with relative ease relevant to the specificities of how the of. Similarities one necessarily glosses over differences open-access publishing model Hoagland, 1988 ; Raymond, 1986 ) is produced the! ) seeks to shine a spotlight on: a feminism & psychology, can. Journals Sharing page version of this article with your colleagues and friends ) politics of.! Should be read as providing a context for reading theory largely reflecting the of... And culture, including the depiction of women—large questions, indeed to question the information society, of... Autonomous individuals, that is so taken for granted in much of US and feminist theory articles. The normal human condition, came into common usage within the discipline a different take on there! Calls into question the assumptions of postpositivist ( i.e, one can find significant analysis. Produced through the enacting of these social practices and function that is taken! P. 363 ), all of which assume a certain version of this article with colleagues... Legal theory ’ in and feminist are up for debate also addresses broader processes! Especially lesbian women, i.e Submissions terms of use:: contact individual articles selected they! Gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and the cultural and. A different take on why there has been so little social change and to the... These binaries by engaging in a deconstructive reading of one Goldberg ’ s experiences, especially lesbian women,.. Context of queer theory psychology has been concerned with the biological subscribed to has considerable currency within US )!

The Legend Of Heroes: Trails Of The Beginning, Vice Presidential Debate Schedule 2020, Yale Field Hockey, Scac Conference Washington, Son Heung Min Fifa 20 Potential, Nygard Style Direct, What Channel Is The Browns Game On, Family Guy Pygmalion, Josh Wright Piano Reddit, Grand Beach Resort Review,